The current state of semiconductor microelectronic systems is at a crossroads. Continued advances in the range and capabilities of our technologies as well as reducing their cost of applications across computing, sensing, and communications represent a tremendous opportunity. The technology has expanded following the trends in miniaturization long characterized by Moore’s Law, underpinned by new materials, processes, devices, and architectures. The developments in these underpinning areas have often progressed independent of the application area, delaying their incorporation into the next-generation technologies. Closing that gap between the essential components in the technology stack, from materials through devices to systems, is now required to ensure further progress. The materials, devices and systems need to be co-designed, that is, designed with simultaneous consideration of as many elements of the technology chain as possible, spanning materials, devices, circuits, architectures, software, and applications.